|（School of Physical Education，Nanjing Normal University，Nanjing 210046，China)
Abstract: By applying structural ontology, the author put forward a new understanding and orientation of the “over-recovery” theory. A whole is composed by “functional existence” and “substantive existence” jointly. Biologists’ questioning focus is reflected on the substantive existence of “over-recovery”, while sports training experts’ practical questioning focus is reflected on the functional existence of “over-recovery”. As a training structure as a whole, sports training’s substantive existence is located in “itself”, while its functional existence is located in “others”. In the study from the perspective of substantive existence, “over-recovery” is the energy metabolism characteristic of the body un-der an exercise load condition, but not the training affecting content. The “functions” in functional existence are train-ing methods and means in terms of training significance. The “function” in terms of philosophical study significance is a behavior mode; something realizes its goals via such a behavior, i.e. the “effect” of functional existence, while such an “effect” is the “characteristic” of the over-recovery theory. “Adaptability makes complexity” has resulted in the rapid development of competitive sports; “complexity makes simplicity” has boosted the scientification of fundamental de-velopment of competitive sports, and initiated the scientific progress of mass sports.
Key words: sports training；over-recovery；structural ontology；substantive existence；functional existence