|（School of Sociology and Political Science，Shanghai University，Shanghai 200444，China)
Abstract: Based on his penetrating insight and observation, Rousseau left a great academic legacy for the rational thinking of modern political philosophy, and the course of development of modern political systems cannot be car-ried out without his foundation-laying and ground-breaking thinking. However, as a philosopher, Rousseau’s undi-versified rational thinking cannot completely present the multiple orientations of his complex thoughts, therefore, it seems to be necessary and urgent to bring Rousseau’s thinking about the body and physical education back to the thinking of sports philosophy, and to rethink the appropriate position of attention paid to the body in Rousseau’s en-tire academic thoughts. Based on their analysis, the authors put forward the following closed loops for explaining Rousseau’s physical education thoughts: firstly, in the development of science and art, individuals not only cor-rupted people’s aesthetic taste, but also undermined people’s strength and weakened people’s courage; secondly, facing such a sort of corruption, undoubtedly Emil like natural education provides a possibility for cultivating a strong body and resisting mores corruption; thirdly, Rousseau placed natural education at a foundational position in the course of education, which is not just to emphasize the importance of cultivating a strong body to individual de-velopment, but intended to emphasize the frailty of individual soul and willpower, and their inability to bear uncer-tainties and changes brought by modern society; the deep purpose of natural education is to cultivate people’s re-straint and toughness, so that they can resist the corruption of public opinion atmosphere and customs, return to so-ciety, thus make a virtuous life become possible.
Key words: sports philosophy；body；physical education；Rousseau